Thursday, November 24, 2011

Disgusting: Britain’s Cover-Up of Inside Job in Fatal RAF Chinook Crash


Evidence points to liquidation of British counterinsurgency team to trick Irish republicans into defeating political process; resembles Bush/Obama operation

Global Research
By Finian Cunningham
11/23/2011

For 17 years the British authorities have lied about the fatal RAF helicopter crash on the Mull of Kintyre in which 25 senior counterinsurgency personnel were killed. Now Global Research reveals new evidence showing that the loss of life was an intentional act of sabotage.

It was the worst single loss of life by Britain’s Royal Air Force since the Second World War. On the evening of 2 June 1994, an RAF Chinook military helicopter slammed into a mountainside on the Mull of Kintyre in thick fog, killing all 29 onboard. Among the dead were four RAF crew and 25 of Britain’s senior counterinsurgency personnel. The latter – including British Army officers and mainly members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary – had overseen Britain’s “dirty war” operations against Irish republican militants during 25 years of conflict in Northern Ireland. 

RAF Chinook
The RAF Chinook – ZD576 – was taking the team of counterinsurgency experts to a high-level security conference at Fort George in Inverness (at the eastern end of the Great Glen). The helicopter took off from Aldergrove in Co Antrim, Northern Ireland, crossed the Antrim hills and the narrow Irish Sea to the Mull of Kintyre, and was to have headed along the Scottish coast to the western end of the Great Glen, thence along it to Inverness. But the ill-fated Chinook never made it to Fort George. About an hour into the journey, at around 6pm, the transport helicopter crashed into a hillside 800 feet above sea level on the Mull of Kintyre.



    Initial suspicions of a Provisional IRA spectacular against the British enemy never gained traction. The crash was quickly understood to have been a tragic accident caused by poor visibility in bad fog – weather conditions that are a routine hazard in that part of the British Isles even in summertime.

Official inquiries blame pilot error

    A year later, in 1995, an RAF Board of Inquiry (BOI) pointed to pilot error as the most likely cause. Controversially, two Air Vice Marshalls who reviewed the BOI judged that the pilots – Flight Lieutenant Jonathan Tapper and Flt Lt Richard Cook – were guilty of gross negligence; it was a harsh verdict which, in the case of deceased aircrew, should only have been given if there was “absolutely no doubt whatsoever” that the crash had happened due to their fault. The RAF has continued to maintain to the public that this was a simple ferry flight, passing by the Mull at low level under Visual Flying Regulations (VFR); the planning was portrayed as vague and informal and the pilots were blamed for inappropriate action upon entering Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) near the Mull – that is, simply, that they did not carry out required (and well practised) procedures when they ran into fog.

    The official conclusion was that the pilots had elected to fly over the Mull rather than turn away from it, and that they had set up a wrong rate of climb. Apart from this particular piece of bad airmanship, the public has to wonder how such an experienced crew ended up hitting what in reality was an isolated low hill?

    After 17 years, the RAF and the British government finally conceded in July 2011 that the pilots were not guilty of “gross negligence”. This was in response to the last official inquiry into the incident chaired by Lord Philip, published the same month, which determined that there were insufficient grounds beyond reasonable doubt to make such a harsh judgment on the deceased. While family and supporters welcomed the partial clearing of the RAF men’s name, nevertheless the official story of what happened to the Chinook remains the same. That is, that the pilots made an error in trying to fly over the Mull, with the emphasis on sudden inclement weather inducing them to miscalculate.

Independent investigation

    But a private investigation into the circumstances of the crash has now revealed exclusively to Global Research that the official account is seriously flawed. Disturbingly, there are sound reasons and evidence to indicate that the Chinook was brought down deliberately with the intention of wiping out the counterinsurgency team. And, as we will see, there is a technical “smoking gun” for how this could have been achieved.

    British aviation expert Walter Kennedy, who has spent the most part of 17 years independently assessing the incident, said: “All official inquiries have totally misrepresented what happened. There have been so many lies, misrepresentations and obfuscations. Anyone with an avionics background who looks into this will see that the official account is seriously flawed.

    “Do I think the Chinook was sabotaged? Absolutely,” added Kennedy, who for 30 years was a member of the Royal Navigation Institute and spent nine years working as a systems engineer in Britain’s military industry and 25 years on navigation systems in civilian aviation.

    Kennedy’s investigation into the Chinook crash is based on flight data disclosed, but not followed up, by the official inquiries, and from inspecting the crash site where he interviewed local people. He has also pieced together sensitive information obtained from various RAF sources [1].

    What he has found is stunning. “If you work through the flight data each aspect is like a jigsaw puzzle and from the picture that it forms it is obvious that the official story is false. It is fascinating that none of the official inquiries probed the obvious questions that arise from the known flight records. The official line seems to be determined to stick to an account that is demonstrably not supported by the data.

    “My report is an objective analysis of the available data from a navigation viewpoint – instrument settings, local knowledge of weather and topography, operating procedures. Not only the last Lord Philip review but all other inquiries failed to make use of this data – indeed, many factors were severally rubbished, quite wrongly, when not only did they make sense on their own but together correlated into a clear picture. 

    In a complex scenario, when a single picture is consistent with all the known data, the probability of this picture being correct is very high – like a repeated weak signal in signal processing technology, the more you get the more it correlates.”

Official inquiries misrepresent crash weather conditions

    The official narrative conveyed in the media continually emphasises extreme weather as being a primary crash factor. This, Kennedy says, is an appalling misrepresentation of the actual conditions prevailing at the time of the crash.

    “Uunderstanding the local weather most probable at the time is germane to understanding the crash,” says Kennedy. “The problem the Chinook crew faced was not one of bad weather closing in on them but rather one of avoiding hitting a fixed, fuzzy obstacle that they needed or wanted to get close to for whatever reason.”

    Local sources told Kennedy that the conditions on the evening of the crash were typical for that time of day and year. Fog and poor visibility are features to be sure, but the weather is predictable. Also, the fog and cloud are generated from the landmass. Typically, the terrain overlooking the Mull was shrouded in a thin ground-hugging mist on the lower slopes whereas ground above 800 feet was covered in a dense orographic cloud. Offshore, the sea was typically not covered in fog. While the ground detail of the landmass would have been obscured by the mist and cloud, the proximity of the landmass would have been identifiable by the approaching helicopter owing to the contrast in visibility. “They would have been able to see it from a long way off and their navigation would have made them aware of their proximity to it,” says Kennedy.

    He points out that the official inquiries into the Chinook crash do not take into account actual weather conditions typical of the Mull of Kintyre. The crew were not overwhelmed by sudden bad weather. As we shall, they were flying deliberately and under control towards a specific point on the Mull – albeit that the point was obscured by localized mist and cloud. Instrument settings and flight plans verify their deliberate movements. Some other untoward factor must explain their final fatal moments.

    It is noteworthy that an RAF Sea King rescue helicopter arrived safely at the scene 45 minutes after the crash under the same conditions. This underlines that the conditions were not inordinately hazardous. Also remarkably, the testimony of the rescue helicopter crew about the landing conditions was never brought to the inquiries, at least publicly.

Political motives for liquidation

    Before addressing further the technical evidence for sabotage here, first it is important to appreciate the political context at the time of the Chinook incident and thus provide understanding of a powerful motive for why these intelligence assets could have been liquidated.

RAF Sea King
When the final official inquiry by Lord Philip was published last July, Global Research speculated then on the possibility that the Chinook disaster could have been an inside job by the British authorities for important tactical reasons to bring about an end to the war in Northern Ireland [2]. Back in the summer of 1994, the British government was conducting furtive negotiations with Irish republicans to entice them into a “peace process” and to accept a political settlement to the conflict that had ravaged Ireland and the United Kingdom for over two decades.

    An end to the conflict, largely on British terms, would turn out to be a major prize for Britain’s political establishment. But the problem for the British at that crucial time in 1994 was convincing the Irish republican movement to call off its formidable armed struggle. That was because two previous ceasefires brokered in the 1970s had been used by the British as an opportunity to try to defeat the IRA through covert methods, such as infiltration with informers. As a result, there was an abiding suspicion among republicans of British bad faith. Perfidious Albion were the perennial watchwords. It would therefore take a serious token from the British to assure the IRA that this time around “the war really was over”.

    Nearly three months after the Chinook deaths, the IRA announced what many analysts had believed would be unthinkable – its historic ceasefire on 31 August 1994, calling for a “complete cessation of armed struggle”. That move then paved the way for a political process that culminated in the Good Friday Agreement in 1998. And the United Kingdom and Ireland have seen relative peace since.

    The political gain for the British government from the “peace process” cannot be overstated. A costly and destabilising insurgency in its backyard has been successfully neutralized, and the six-county state of Northern Ireland still remains firmly part of the United Kingdom, under British jurisdiction, and for the foreseeable future. This has secured an ongoing de facto British sway over political and economic affairs in the whole island of Ireland.

Defeating Irish republicanism through ‘peace process’

    In many ways, the political process spelt a huge defeat for Irish republicanism in terms of achieving its historic aim of an independent, socialist united Ireland free from British rule. Republicans have become locked into a British-partitioned Ireland where the political framework is constitutionally limited to pursue their vision. Indeed, some traditional republicans complain that the movement under the political wing of Sinn Fein has “sold out” on its principles. Furthermore, the now 17-year-old IRA ceasefire and subsequent decommissioning of weapons means that there is little chance for the armed struggle to be resumed. 

RIRA
So all in all, Ireland, North and South, has been safely returned to the British sphere of influence, politically, economically, culturally, in such an overarching way that it harks back to the colonial era of earlier centuries when all of the territory was seamlessly dominated by British policy.

    Understanding this gain for the British establishment underscores the crucial importance of having enticed the IRA into calling its ceasefire and to enter the political process – a process that was framed to thwart opposition to British presence in Ireland. What the British couldn’t achieve by military means, they managed by political means – the defeat of the Irish republican movement. In the grand scheme of things, the sacrifice of Northern Ireland’s counterinsurgency team would be a price worth paying.

Burying dark secrets of Britain’s dirty war

    In addition, the men onboard that Chinook would take to their graves many dark secrets about Britain’s “dirty war” operations, including how British forces colluded with Protestant loyalist death squads. These proxy death squads were armed and instructed by British Intelligence and are believed to have carried out over 300 murders of republicans and ordinary Catholics during the course of the 1969-1994 conflict – nearly 10 per cent of the total number of dead. Also, as Kennedy notes about the personnel onboard the Chinook: “These men dedicated their lives to fighting the IRA. They were not going to give up on their missions easily. From the British government point of view, they would have been viewed as an obstacle to the peace process it was trying to initiate. They were military men, not politicians.”

Exposing the official cover-up of what happened Chinook

    To recap, the official version maintains that the pilots were overwhelmed by unexpected poor visibility due to fog. Contrary to their impressive experience and training, the RAF claims that rather than slowing down and climbing at a maximum rate, or turning back out to sea, the pilots inexplicably advanced at an inappropriate rate of climb towards the highest ground in the vicinity – and this inexplicable action on their part was solely the cause of the crash.

    But what Kennedy’s analysis shows is the following:

1. Flt Lts Tapper and Cook had meticulously planned their trip to include a known landing zone (LZ) at the Mull. A waypoint (A) recorded on the computerized flight plan shows this intention. The recorded directions taken by the Chinook indicate that the pilots were intending to touch base at the Mull, either by actually landing or by homing in on the LZ before proceeding to the destination further up the Scottish coast at Fort George. Both pilots were familiar with the LZ at the Mull, situated some 300 metres from a lighthouse. Says Kennedy: “The inclusion of an element of flight testing in itineraries is normal procedure for all RAF transport even when the transport is for senior personnel.”

2. The pilots had been keeping strictly on track until they made a deliberate right turn close in to the Mull. They had been referring to the navigation computer up until that right turn; they were not contravening Visual Flying Regulations, as alleged by the official inquiries.

3. Barometric and radar altimeter settings recovered from the wreckage of Chinook ZD576 were consistent with a landing on, or close pass over, the LZ at the Mull.

4. The power settings were matched at intermediate level, consistent with the helicopter coasting horizontally towards the LZ and fully under control of the crew. “They were slowing down, letting their speed ‘wash off’, not performing a climb,” says Kennedy. Note the official version claims that the pilots were attempting an accelerated climb over the Mull, which could not be the case if the power settings were matched at intermediate level. Local sources, in particular the lighthouse keeper who was familiar with helicopters landing, also said that the engine noise from the Chinook moments before the crash was steady – again indicating that the aircraft was under control at that time and not climbing.

5. The Chinook navigator had the course set that would have taken them “handrailing” up the coast of Islay/Jura – it was obviously their intention to cross back over the sea in a north westerly direction to use this safe, clear route after touching base at the Mull, not to fly over the Mull, as the official version claims.

6. From the lateral position of the Chinook fuselage at the crash site, it appears that the pilots were attempting a “quick stop” manoeuvre in which they abruptly steered the big-bodied aircraft sideways to drastically reduce speed and take it into a vertical lift. Says Kennedy: “Not only is there is no evidence of control problems as the official account claims, but the final manoeuvre attempt showed meaningful control and expert airmanship in the circumstances. What the ‘quick stop’ attempt shows is that the pilots were surprised by their proximity to the ground. They were not flying negligently.”

    Comments Kennedy: “The most obvious scenario is that the helicopter crew were approaching that known landing spot at waypoint A on the Mull; it had a safe exit, or “wave-off” option, as there was plenty of room at the elevation of that spot for a moderate turn around the lighthouse back out to sea – it was the optimum spot to aim for, given the turning radii available to a Chinook at high speed, for a turn around the lighthouse.

    “One of the lighthouse keepers pointed out to me the approach line that military helicopters had previously taken in the past to achieve that manoeuvre – and the heading would have been 035 magnetic north (035M), which was as found on the Chinook handling pilot's course selector on his main navigation display.”

    Kennedy, who attended the Fatal Accident Inquiry in 1996 and who has gone through the transcripts of all the inquiries, noted that none of these recorded findings and testimonies were cause for further questioning or elaboration. “At the very least, it was apparent that previous inquiries had not had the potential value of the available data made clear to them. Indeed, it seems that it was detracted from at every opportunity. No-one at these inquiries putting questions to the RAF or Ministry of Defence seemed to have any avionics background. Their focus was on narrow legalistic issues, such as: ‘Was it appropriate or not to ascribe gross negligence to the dead crew?’. When technical questions were put, they were easily obfuscated. But anyone familiar with the technical details can see that the official explanation of what happened is demonstrably at odds with the facts.”

    “I believed back at the time the original verdict of gross negligence against the pilots was so premature before sufficient exploration of so many issues that it had to have been politically motivated, that the authorities wanted to avert public disquiet by saying that it was ‘undoubtedly pilot error, no sabotage, nothing to see here, move along’.”

Technical ‘smoking gun’

    Kennedy’s investigations reveal one further crucial detail that has been denied or obfuscated by RAF officials and the British government in all inquiries so far into the crash. And it is this technical “smoking gun” that points up the malicious aspect of what happened on the Mull of Kintyre and how it could have been perpetrated.

    The avionics expert has obtained confirmation that Chinook ZD576 was equipped with a landing device known as a Covert Personnel Locator System. Officially, this is denied, but trusted RAF contacts have unofficially confirmed to him that ZD576 was fitted out with the system on that journey. “All the movements of the helicopter as it was approaching the Mull point to the fact that the crew were coming in for a landing or a near landing and that they were using a CPLS to achieve this. I predicted the use of the CPLS from their movements at the Mull. That has now been confirmed to me by RAF sources. This revelation of a CPLS onboard Chinook ZD576 is grounds enough for another inquiry to be opened,” he says.

    The CPLS, explains Kennedy, is a precision guidance system that is intrinsically reliable. It is often used by American and British military helicopters to pinpoint special forces who are trapped behind enemy lines. The system’s various manufacturers describe it as being used for “an all-weather approach to assault zones, landing zones and drop zones”.

    What makes the CPLS particularly useful is that it operates by a portable handset on the ground that sends an Ultra High Frequency radio signal to the receiver onboard the helicopter. Basically, the operator on the ground guides the helicopter to the landing zone and because the helicopter crew are following a unique signal there is little need for the pilots to have external visibility. They are relying on the ground operator to bring them safely to the LZ.

Chinook crew misled by operators on the ground?

    On the evening that the pilots flew ZD576 into the fog at the shoreline of the Mull, the instrument settings show that they were preparing for landing. From their experience, they knew that the approach terrain was relatively low lying towards the LZ. Kennedy believes that the operator group on the ground was out of position and that instead of being directed to the LZ, the crew of the Chinook were misled into a “vertical corner” of nearby mountainous terrain. “Because the pilots believed they were approaching the LZ, the lower power settings they had selected would have made it nearly impossible for them to conduct a successful emergency manoeuvre at the last moment to avert collision. The Chinook is normally an agile aircraft despite its bulky size, but without the thrust power, the pilots would have had no chance of negotiating the vertical corner.”

Would the operators on the ground not have been in danger from the incoming Chinook?

    Near the crash site on the Mull, on the aircraft’s track and at about the right distance inland to have caused their over-run of the shoreline, is a large fissure – a natural granite rock trench. Kennedy himself has inspected it. “Anyone hiding in that trench would have had protection from a crashing 20-ton helicopter.”

    “Whether the CPLS operators on the ground were out of position wilfully or not is for another inquiry to ascertain,” he adds. “Had the operator on the ground been half a mile or so up the slope from the landing spot where the pilots expected him to be, all that is known about this crash is explained.”

    Kennedy is adamant that Chinook ZD576 with all those onboard was deliberately brought down. “From the very beginning, this has smacked of a cover-up. The official account is demonstrably not true in light of the flight and instrument data. Given the strong political motives, there is powerful reason for why it could have been sabotage. And now there is evidence of the technical means by which this sabotage could have been carried out.”

    If that is the case, then senior people within the British military and political establishment made a call on the lives of those who perished.

Why were 25 counterinsurgency personnel put on one helicopter?

    Other questions also need to be asked. Why were all 25 counterinsurgency personnel put on one helicopter? Who took that decision for this irregular security arrangement, especially when there were other aircraft available to spread the transport of the men? If the CPLS was being deployed, as Kennedy claims, then there should have been a record of this component in the flight plans, which the meticulous navigation pilot, Flt Lt Tapper, would have logged – was this record removed from the pilot’s flight plan after the event?

    Intriguingly too, for the Chinook sacrifice to have sent the intended signal to Irish republicans that the “war was over”, there must be senior persons within the IRA ranks who also know the truth of what really happened, and, importantly, would have been tipped off before it happened. This, of course, would have been conveyed to republicans in such a way that would afford plausible denial by the British contacts. Also, given the way the peace process has worked out in hindsight to the historic disadvantage of republicans, much to their bitter regret no doubt, it is unlikely that they would disclose their fatal error of buying into such a dirty trick.

Finian Cunningham formerly based in Belfast, is Global Research's Correspondent on Middle East and East Africa affairs.


NOTES

[1] For further technical information on the 1994 Chinook crash, readers may contact Walter Kennedy directly at walterkennedy7525@gmail.com  

[2] Chinook Disaster: Did Britain Sacrifice Counterinsurgency Top Brass to Defeat Irish Republicans?




Images:  Google royalty free unless otherwise attributed.


This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.  We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.





Bush, Blair found guilty of war crimes in Malaysia Tribunal: Complete Text of Judgment


Now the Hague needs to get involved; America will never be Republic again until War Crimes trials take place for ALL Bush cabinet officers, JCS, Obama, Clinton

Press TV
By Mahi Ramakrishnan
11/23/2011

Read Extempore Judgment of the KL War Crimes Tribunal (PDF)
Download Extempore Judgment of the KL War Crimes Tribunal

Judgment of the Court (PDF)


Former US president George Bush and his former counterpart Tony Blair were found guilty of war crimes by the The Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Tribunal which held a four day hearing in the Malaysia.

Malaysian War Crimes Tribunal
The five panel tribunal unanimously decided that Bush and Blair committed genocide and crimes against peace and humanity when they invaded Iraq in 2003 in blatant violation of international law.

The judges ruled that war against Iraq by both the former heads of states was a flagrant abuse of law, act of aggression which amounted to a mass murder of the Iraqi people.

    In their verdict, the judges said that the United States, under the leadership of Bush, forged documents to claim that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction.

War Criminals Bush and Blair give each other medals
They further said the findings of the tribunal be made available to members of the Rome Statute and the names of Bush and Blair be entered into a war crimes register.

   


    
   Both Bush and Blair repeatedly said the so-called war against terror was targeted at terrorists.

    Lawyers and human rights activists present here say the verdict by the tribunal is a landmark decision. And the Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Foundation said it would lobby the International Criminal Court to charge former US president George Bush and Former British prime minister Tony Blair for war crimes. 
 
Images:  Google royalty free unless otherwise attributed.


This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.  We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.



Leaked UN report reveals torture, lynchings and abuse in post-Gaddafi Libya


America must have healthy serving of blood and guts as side dish to any war; NATO, Obama laughing stock of world over Gaddafi murder inquiry

The Independent
By Kim Sengupta and Solomon Hughes
11/23/2011

Thousands of people, including women and children, are being illegally detained by rebel militias in Libya, according to a report by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Many of the prisoners are suffering torture and systematic mistreatment while being held in private jails outside the control of the country's new government.

    The document, seen by The Independent, states that while political prisoners being held by the Gaddafi regime have been released, their places have been taken by up to 7,000 new “enemies of the state”, "disappeared" in a dysfunctional system, with no recourse to the law.

Dead dictator Gaddafi
The report will come as uncomfortable reading for the Western governments, including Britain, which backed the campaign to oust Gaddafi. A UN resolution was secured in March in order to protect civilians from abuses by the regime, which was at the time mercilessly suppressing the uprising against the Gaddafi regime.

    There was evidence, says the report by Ban Ki-moon, due to be presented to the Security Council, that both sides committed acts amounting war crimes in the bitter battle for Colonel Gaddafi's hometown, Sirte. The Secretary-General who recently visited Libya, echoes the concern expressed by many world leaders over the killing of the former dictator by rebel fighters pointing out that Gaddafi was captured alive before being put to death.

    The report also stresses that it is a matter of great praise that the country has been liberated after 42 years of totalitarian rule. The victorious opposition - which formed a new interim government this week - fully intends to follow a democratic path and introduce a functioning legal system, he says. The report is due to be circulated among members of the UN Security Council, and discussed next week.

    However, Ban Ki-moon also presents a grim scenario of the growing power of the armed militias that control of the streets of many towns, including those of the capital, Tripoli, and the settling of internecine feuds through gun battles resulting in deaths and injuries.

   Meanwhile the lawlessness has resulted in the vast majority of the police force not being able to return to work. In the few places where they have been back on duty under experienced officers, such as Tripoli, their role has been restricted largely to directing traffic.

    Libya is the only Arab uprising to have attracted direct Western military support, despite the closer links forged with the West in recent years by the Gaddafi regime. The resistance in London, Washington and elsewhere to Nato-led intervention in other Arab countries has centred largely on a lack of coherent opposition. Political backers of the air strikes in Libya had cited the National Transitional Council (NTC) as a credible alternative to the Gaddafi regime.

Manpad
The scope of escalating strife, inside the country as well as the wider region, is highlighted by the caches of weapons abandoned by the regime and subsequently looted. These include shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles, known as Manpads, capable of bringing down commercial airliners. 



    The Report of the Secretary-General on United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) states that: “Libya had accumulated the largest known stockpile of Manpads, of any non-Manpad-producing country. Although thousands were destroyed during the seven-month Nato operations, there are increasing concerns over the looting and likely proliferation of these portable defence systems, as well as munitions and mines, highlighting the potential risk to local and regional stability.”

    But the continuing human rights abuses, says the Secretary-General’s report, are the most pressing concern. The report says that “while political prisoners held by the Gaddafi regime have been released, an estimated 7,000 detainees are currently held in prisons and makeshift detention centres, most of which are under the control of revolutionary brigades, with no access to due process in the absence of a functioning police and judiciary.”

    Of particular worry was the fate of women being held for alleged links with the regime, often due to family connections, sometimes with their children locked up alongside them.

Gadaffi's notorious Abu Salim prison
“There have also been reports of women held in detention in the absence of female guards and under male supervision, and of children detained alongside adults,” says the report.

A number of black Africans were lynched following the revolution following claims, often false, that they were hired guns for the Gaddafi regime. The city of Tawerga, mainly comprised of residents originally from sub-Saharan countries, was largely destroyed by rebel fighters from neighbouring Misrata. The port city had withstood a prolonged and brutal siege in the hands of the regime forces during which, it is claimed, fighters from Tawerga were particularly aggressive and brutal.

    The report says that ”sub-Saharan Africans, in some cases accused or suspected of being mercenaries, constitute a large number of the detainees. Some detainees have reportedly been subjected to torture and ill treatment. Cases have been reported of individuals being targeted because of the colour of their skin.”

    The document continues: “Tawergas are reported to have been targeted in revenge killings, or taken by armed men from their homes, checkpoints and hospitals, and some allegedly later abused or executed in detention. Members of the community have fled to various cities across Libya.”

    The UN findings chart the vicious abuse carried out by the regime until the final days of the civil war. In a personal note in the document, Ban Ki-Moon said: “I was deeply shocked by my visit to an agricultural warehouse in the Khallital-Ferjan neighbourhood of Tripoli where elements of the Gaddafi regime had detained civilians in inhuman conditions, had subjected some to torture and had massacred as many as they could and burned their bodies.

    “The international community must support the efforts to establish the fate of missing persons and to bring to justice perpetrators with the greatest responsibility for such crimes.”

 Images:  Google royalty free unless otherwise attributed.


This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.  We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.


Alarm over nuclear research sounds like 2003 claims Iraq had WMDs


How many times will Americans buy into this bullshit; invading Iran all but assures resumption of draft

Axis of Logic
By Peter Hart
11/23/2011

For at least the past two decades, political leaders in the United States and Israel have warned that Iran was on the threshold of building a nuclear weapon. From what we've been hearing lately from the media, Iran is once again... on that threshold.

Obama get's marching orders from Netanyahu
Touting thousands of pages of carefully vetted intelligence, menacing satellite imagery, and tales of a mysterious Soviet nuclear scientist, the media are telling us that Iran is about to get The Bomb.
This part of the story began when the International Atomic Energy Agency issued a report that laid out the case against Iran. One newspaper headline called it a "red alert." An ABC TV reporter said Iran is "carrying out activities whose sole purpose can only be the development of a nuclear weapon."

     Let's play "Back to the Future" for a minute. Does anyone remember the last time we were told that a country with a four-letter name starting with I-R-A had amassed fearsome weapons based on solid, "slam dunk" intelligence?

     The big media failure on Iraq was that the major broadcast and print outlets weren't skeptical of official claims. And that's exactly what's happening with Iran. Does that IAEA report really flash "red alert"?" Hardly.

Madman (Ahmadinejad) + Coward, traitor (Obama) = WWIII
The agency reports that Iran isn't diverting enriched uranium for military purposes — which is exactly what the IAEA is supposed to be monitoring. But that's not the news here.



    The nuclear intelligence that the media is fixated on consists mostly of allegations of abstract research that have been floating around for years: computer models, warhead designs, and so on, much of it happening years ago. If any of these allegations were true, there's no solid evidence that Iran is attempting to turn theoretical knowledge into a working weapon. The report says as much, if anyone bothers to read it.

   And what about the nuclear weapons scientist from the former Soviet Union who tutored Iran in explosives? It turns out that he may have nothing to do with nuclear weapons at all — his field of specialization for the past 50 years has been the use of conventional explosives to create industrial diamonds.

    The media are, once again, failing to do its job. The only good news is that few outlets are openly calling for the United States to take military action.

     But the Iran story has been a boon to Republican presidential candidates, who can use the story to boast that they'd take a harder line than Barack Obama. Front-runner Mitt Romney had this to say at a recent debate: "If we reelect Barack Obama, Iran will have a nuclear weapon. And if we elect Mitt Romney, if you elect me as the next president, they will not have a nuclear weapon."


Gun-totin' nutcase:  Rick Perry
You'll recall that Rick Perry's brain freeze when he couldn't name all three government agencies he would eliminate could very well spell the end of his campaign. Here we have the relatively moderate GOP front-runner claiming he can single-handedly stop Iran from getting a nuclear bomb. It's absurd, but it didn't cause a stir — probably because making outrageous claims about Iranian nukes isn't considered a "gaffe" by the media elite.

    Indeed, The Washington Post's editorial page declared that this IAEA report "ought to end serious debate" about Iran's nuclear program.

     Isn't ending serious debate what got us into trouble with Iraq?

Peter Hart is FAIR's [Fairness and Accuracy In Reporting] activism director.



Images:  Google royalty free unless otherwise attributed.


This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.  We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.






America's FBI and Paradox of Evil


J. Edgar Hoover's creation a world, law unto itself; FBI has no civilian oversight whatsoever

World News
By Dallas Darling
11/23/2011

To fully comprehend America's FBI and its erratic, malfeasant behaviors-such as the arrest of a popular director of an Arab-American cultural center in Detroit falsely accused of being a terrorist and then released when it was realized the wrong person had been apprehended, or an Iranian-American car salesman in Corpus Christi who was charged with conspiring with Iran in plotting to kill Saudi Arabia's Ambassador to the U.S., or the individual just arrested in New York City for making pipe bombs in hopes of targeting U.S. military personnel, or the FBI counterterrorism manuals instructing agents how Muslims are genocidal and Muslim "juries" threaten American values-it is important to understand The Paradox of Evil and the origins of the FBI, including its historical context.

Nixon genuinely feared Hoover
The Paradox of Evil first begins with a strong and sincere belief to rid the world of evil and its pernicious influences, wherever they might be found. The solution, of course, is to eliminate those who are suspected of spreading evil and its vices, or those suspected to be carriers of evil. While the mechanism to locate evil is usually state-sanctioned spies, the means to extract confessions is usually intrusive questioning or torture techniques. The terrible Paradox of Evil, then, is that the enthusiastic and sincere desire to combat evil generates evil on a much larger scale than what previously was known.(1) Also, in order to justify a crusade against evil, those in power not only define evil, but they are the very ones who label specific individuals as being evil.

Hoover posing for press
The FBI was born in the midst of America's entry into World War One. Until then, and on the local level, many Americans enjoyed a plethora of economic and political ideas, like Communism, Anarchism, Capitalism Marxism, Socialism, and Progressivism. They also experienced numerous labor strikes and a variety of social reforms. But the U.S. Government's war mobilization and control of almost every sector of American society, including labor and industry, dampened many freedoms. The Alien and Sedition and Espionage Acts, that made it a crime to speak on behalf of peace or interfere with the war effort, initiated a climate of fear and suspicion. Thousands of citizens were arrested. America was made unsafe for democratic and progressive movements.

    After World War One, millions of returning veterans and an increase in the cost of food, clothing, shelter and other basic necessities, led to thousands of labor strikes. Dozens of racial riots erupted across America, some lasting several days and killing and injuring hundreds of people. The wave of labor strikes and racial unrest helped ignite fears that Communists, Anarchists or Socialists were conspiring to start a revolution in the U.S. Still, some Americans were extremely angry and bitter over the war. It was easy, then, to displace this anger and hatred onto immigrants and people who held differing political and economic views. Monopolists and politicians incited even more fear by announcing the "Reds" wanted to seize control of the America.

Hoover and Clyde Tolson:  Was he gay?
Declaring that a "blaze of revolution" was "burning up the foundations of society,"(2) U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer established a special division within the Justice Department, or the General Intelligence Division (GID) which eventually became known as the FBI. In order to rid America of the evils and vices of Communism, Anarchy, Marxism, Socialism, and anything that was considered un-American, Palmer organized a series of raids on the headquarters of various political and economic organizations. They also focused on foreign residents and immigrants, specifically people who looked and thought differently. Thousands of "evil" suspects were arrested and detained. Many were eventually deported from the country.

    Palmer's agents often disregarded the civil liberties of American citizens. Officers entered homes and offices and union halls without search warrants. Arrested suspects were beaten and tortured and held in jail for indefinite periods of time. Neither were they allowed to speak with their attorneys. Meanwhile, states passed peace-time sedition acts under which hundreds of innocent people were arrested. While the New York State legislature expelled five popularly elected members who were Socialists, vigilante mobs and paramilitary militias were formed by political machines and paid for by wealthy monopolists who were fearful of a redistribution of wealth and economic equality. Debate and peaceful dissent, that is so necessary for vital democratic institutions, became virtually extinct.

Zit-faced, clueless kid; today's FBI
Meanwhile, corporate moguls and political machines, Democrats and Republicans, used the GID and paramilitary forces to launch crusades against viable labor and political movements. When the Socialist Party and Industrial Workers of the World helped with a general strike in Seattle, by passing out free meals and providing shelter to 100,000 shipyard workers, those in power called the strike an "attempted revolution...for the overthrow of the industrial system."(3) The GID and national guardsmen were called in to crush the strike. American Legion members attacked workers with fire hoses, gas pipes, and guns. Labor leaders were arrested and jailed, some even dragged from their cell and either hanged or castrated.(4) This kind of vigilantism was repeated across the nation.

    "Revolution" was never really "eating its way into the homes of the American workmen,"(5) as Palmer claimed, but The Paradox of Evil was. After a while, some radical groups and organizations started to resist and fight back. They either tried planting bombs that targeted authorities, or attempted to assassinate certain political and economic leaders that had legislated and had called for a punitive crusade to stamp out diverse ideas. As Palmer and the GID manifested more outrageous anti-radical behavior, attempting to utterly crush any alternative movement, anarchists finally bombed New York City's financial district, killing thirty-eight people. Recall that the desire to combat evil generates evil on a much larger scale than what was previously known. 

The "clear and present danger" has always been federal and state organizations born and mobilized in wartime and given a mandate to rid the world of what they considered to be evil. Whether it be the FBI, or the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Council and Agency-all prodigies of World War Two, or Homeland Security-an offspring of Sept. 11, 2001 retaliatory attacks, the sincere desire to combat and rid the world of evil usually backfires. Is it any wonder that tens of thousands of innocent people have not only been falsely arrested and tortured during the Global War On Terror, but also murdered? Crusading organizations can easily distort ideals, turning carefully designed systems and laws into mass terror, torture, and even the extermination of tens of thousands of people.

Important job:  the FBI protects you from this
At the same time, evil and good are a complex phenomenon, they should never be reduced to simple military solutions or unbridled domestic inquisitions. Neither should they be defined by only certain individuals who hold absolute power and command unlimited authority. Beware of both America and the FBI, for trying to make a nation and the world safe for democracy, they have brought about more insecurity and repression on a much larger scale than what was previously unknown. Again, it is the Paradox of Evil.

Dallas Darling darling@wn.com

Dallas Darling is the author of Politics 501: An A-Z Reading on Conscientious Political Thought and Action, Some Nations Above God: 52 Weekly Reflections On Modern-Day Imperialism, Militarism, And Consumerism in the Context of John's Apocalyptic Vision, and The Other Side Of Christianity: Reflections on Faith, Politics, Spirituality, History, and Peace. He is a correspondent for
www.worldnews.com. You can read more of Dallas' writings at www.beverlydarling.com and wn.com//dallasdarling.

(1) Zimbardo, Philip. The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York, New York: Random House Publishers, 2007., p. 9.

(2) Appleby, Joyce. The American Republic. New York, New York: Glencoe McGraw- Hill, 2003., p. 474.

(3) Blank, Carla. Rediscovering America, The Making Of Multicultural America, 1900-2000. New York, New York: Three Rivers Press, 2003., p. 95.

(4) Ibid., p. 95.

(5) Norton, Mary Beth. A People and a Nation. New York, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999., p. 441.

 
Images:  Google royalty free unless otherwise attributed.


This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.  We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.




Medvedev: Russia may target missile defense sites


Obama looking for war in all the right places; coward will say or do anything to get American attention off U.S. Treasury thefts, war crimes trials for himself and friends Bush, Cheney, Rice, Rumsfeld, et. al

Associated Press
11/24/2011

MOSCOW (AP) —  

Russia will deploy new missiles aimed at U.S. missile defense sites in Europe if Washington goes ahead with the planned shield despite Russia's concerns, President Dmitry Medvedev said Wednesday.

    Russia will station missiles in its westernmost Kaliningrad region and other areas if Russia and NATO fail to reach a deal on the U.S.-led missile defense plans, he said in a tough statement that seemed to be aimed at rallying domestic support.

Boy Obama and drinking buddies Berlusconi, Medvedev
Russia considers the plans for missile shields in Europe, including in Romania and Poland, to be a threat to its nuclear forces, but the Obama administration insists they are meant to fend off a potential threat from Iran.

Moscow has agreed to consider NATO's proposal last fall to cooperate on the missile shield, but the talks have been deadlocked over how the system should operate. Russia has insisted that the system should be run jointly, which NATO has rejected.

    Medvedev also warned that Moscow may opt out of the New START arms control deal with the United States and halt other arms control talks if the U.S. proceeds. The Americans had hoped that the treaty would stimulate progress further ambitious arms control efforts, but such talks have stalled over tension on the missile plans.

    "The United States and its NATO partners as of now aren't going to take our concerns about the European missile defense into account," a stern Medvedev said, adding that if the alliance continues to "stonewall" Russia it will take retaliatory action.

Douchebags Clinton, Obama now have this pointed at U.S. AGAIN
The U.S. plan calls for placing land- and sea-based radars and interceptors in European locations over the next decade and upgrading them over time.

Medvedev warned that Russia will deploy short-range Iskander missiles in Kaliningrad, a Baltic Sea exclave bordering Poland, and place weapons in other areas in Russia's west and south to target U.S. missile defense sites.

    Medvedev added that prospective Russian strategic nuclear missiles will be fitted with systems that would allow them to penetrate prospective missile defenses.

    He and other Russian leaders have made similar threats in the past, and the latest statement appears to be aimed at domestic audience ahead of Dec. 4 parliamentary elections.

    Medvedev, who is set to step down to allow Prime Minister Vladimir Putin reclaim the presidency in March's elections, leads the ruling United Russia party list in the parliamentary vote.

    A sterm warning to the U.S. and NATO issued by Medvedev seems to be directed at rallying nationalist votes in the polls.

Images:  Google royalty free unless otherwise attributed.


 
This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc.  We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.




Wayne Madsen: Stage set for further US/NATO military intervention around the world


Obama continues to march in lock-step with policies of his God, War Criminal G.W. Bush

Wayne Madsen Report
By Wayne Madsen
11/24/2011

The Obama administration, in yet another display of the use of Orwellian language, has embarked on a military doctrine called "Mass Atrocity Prevention" (MAP), the Pentagon operational plan to implement the White House's "R2P" or "Responsibility to Protect" doctrine. Essentially, the Pentagon will militarily support the intervention of international forces operating under the umbrella of NATO, UN, the African Union, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Arab League, and others to prevent a "massacre" by a dictatorial government perceived to pose a threat to its domestic opposition.

Muammar Qaddafi
The doctrine envisages an opposition front requesting the intervention of foreign forces to protect the people from a massacre by a besieged autocratic government. MAP operations were carried out in Libya, where the U.S. military directly supported the Libyan rebel uprising against Muammar Qaddafi's government based on a perception that Qaddafi's government was going to massacre a large portion of the civilian population. There is little proof that Qaddafi was planning such a mass atrocity and, in fact, there is ample evidence that mass atrocities against black Libyans and other Africans were carried out by the Libyan Interim Transition National Council, originally based in the rebel stronghold of Benghazi.

    MAP operations are also being carried out by U.S. and NATO troops in Somalia, aided by Ethiopian and Kenyan invading forces and Ugandan and Burundian "peacekeepers." It has also been reported that Israeli military and intelligence forces are aiding Kenya in its military intervention in Somalia to assist the Transitional Federal Government, a Western-supported rump government in Mogadishu, to battle Islamist Al-Sbabab rebels.

    The decision by President Obama to dispatch 100 U.S. Special Operations personnel to Uganda to battle Lord's Resistance Army rebels and capture their leader, Joseph Kony, is also a MAP operation. The head of the U.S. Africa Command, General Carter Ham, said the U.S. forces will remain in Uganda until Kony is caught.

Obama's boy:  General Carter Ham
MAP doctrine has been crafted by the U.S. Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) at the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. However, opposition sources in Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia report that the actual reason for the MAP operations in east Africa differ little from that which saw similar operations in Libya: oil.


    MAP was used as cover by the U.S. and NATO to oust Qaddafi and gain control of Libya's oil resources under the guise of "humanitarian" intervention. In east Africa, the intervention of the West, including French forces in Somalia, is to secure the pirate-ridden Somali waters and the Horn of Africa and eastern Africa to major oil operations, including the construction of a pipeline from newly-independent South Sudan, as well as Uganda, to the Kenyan port of Mombasa. 

    The impending increase in tanker traffic to Mombasa has resulted in a need to pacify the Indian Ocean littoral and surrounding waters and eliminate the threat of piracy. Al-Shabab and humanitarian concerns in Somalia mask the actual intentions of the Western powers and their supporters in the African Union, most notably Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan, Djibouti, Rwanda, Burundi and neo-colonized nations in western Africa such as Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone, and Benin.

Al-Shabab scumbags use child-soldiers
MAP operations are currently underway in Syria, where covert NATO support is being provided to Syrian rebels operating from Turkey and over the porous Iraqi-Syrian border. A Libyan-style intervention in Syria by NATO surrogates is being increased incrementally with diplomatic cover being provided by the UN and Arab League, as was the case in Libya.

    Burned by George W. Bush's "go-it-alone" military doctrine in Iraq, the Obama administration has altered U.S. military intervention policy by giving it the color of humanitarian intervention backed no by a "coalition of the willing" but by existing international organizations, particularly NATO.

    Other MAP contingency plans are being formulated for Zimbabwe through the African Union and AFRICOM; Sudan through the Arab League, AFRICOM, and NATO; Algeria through the Arab League and NATO; and Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia through the U.S. Southern Command and the OAS. Except for Zimbabwe, which is rich in rare-earth minerals, the nations being targeted have large oil and/or natural gas reserves.

    However, according to Pentagon sources, Defense Department contingency planning for major MAP operations -- with the commitment of large-scale military forces -- is underway for Iran, Pakistan, Russia, and China.
 
Wayne MADSEN (USA)

Investigative journalist, author and syndicated columnist. Has some twenty years experience in security issues. As a U.S. Naval Officer, he managed one of the first computer security programs for the U.S. Navy. 

Wayne Madsen
He has been a frequent political and national security commentator on Fox News and has also appeared on ABC, NBC, CBS, PBS, CNN, BBC, Al Jazeera, and MS-NBC. He has been invited to testify as a witness before the US House of Representatives, the UN Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and an terrorism investigation panel of the French government. A member of the Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ) and the National Press Club. Lives in Washington, D.C. 


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ANDREW KREIG: EXPERTS REJECT FIRE AS CAUSE FOR 9/11 WTC COLLAPSES

The real truth on 9/11 slowly continues to bleed out

 photo
Technical experts are mounting major challenges to official U.S. government accounts of how three World Trade Center skyscrapers collapsed in near-freefall after the 9/11 attacks 15 years ago.

Many researchers are focusing especially on the little-known collapse of

READ MORE >>

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Geopolitics Of The United States, Part 1: The Inevitable Empire

The Empire and the inevitable fall of the Obama criminal regime

 photo
STRATFOR Editor’s Note: This installment on the United States, presented in two parts, is the 16th in a series of STRATFOR monographs on the geopolitics of countries influential in world affairs.

Like nearly all of the peoples of North and South America, most Americans are not originally from the territory that became the United States.

READ MORE >>

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Geopolitics Of The United States Part 2: American Identity And The Threats of Tomorrow

A look back at 2011 predictions for the future in order to put events of today into perspective

 photo capitalism_zpsah78uy5p.jpg
We have already discussed in the first part of this analysis how the American geography dooms whoever controls the territory to being a global power, but there are a number of other outcomes that shape what that power will be like. The first and most critical is the impact of that geography on the American mindset.

READ MORE >>

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


By Robert S. Finnegan

This e-mail outlines and confirms the acts of espionage against Indonesia and Indonesians by Akiko Makino and the others involved both in Kobe University and in AI Lab at University of Airlangga, Surabaya; Bahasa Indonesia original follows English translation...

READ MORE >>

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

UPDATED 01/07/2015 : New Analysis Challenges Tamiflu Efficacy; Hong Kong Corona Virus Outbreak

UPDATED 01/07/2015 : FOX NEWS CORPORATE PHARMA SHILL MEGAN KELLY AND FOX NEWS QUACK DOCTOR NOW PUSHING TAMIFLU FOR PREGNANT WOMEN AND CHILDREN;

 photo TAMIFLU_small_zpssojx6okt.jpg
THE 5TH ESTATE UNEQUIVOCALLY WARNS THE PUBLIC NOT TO TAKE OR GIVE THIS PROVEN DANGEROUS, INEFFECTIVE DRUG TO ANYONE

Obama criminals now resulting to biowarfare in quest to destroy Chinese and ASEAN economy; "novel virus substrain" points directly to a Kawaoka / Fouchier / Ernala-Ginting Kobe lab virus weaponized and genetically altered to specifically target and infect the Asian population: Ribavirin...

READ MORE >>

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


 photo WHO02_zpsplmhtlpr.jpg
The 5th Estate has just purchased a library on H5N1 "Novel" virus pandemics, there are dozens of PDF and Exel documents we feel will assist you in saving lives following intentional releases of the H5N1 and now MERS viruses; we will begin by printing those that appear to be extremely relevant here: H5N1 Kobe-Kawaoka-Ernala series continues soon with more "Smoking Gun" e-mails from Teridah Ernala to The 5th Estate . . .

READ MORE >>

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


By Robert S. Finnegan

On October 12, 2002 the Indonesian island of Bali experienced a terrorist attack that rocked the world. It was unquestionably well-coordinated and executed, the largest in the country's history.

READ MORE >>