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Saturday, February 28, 2015

Tetrandrine : Compound From Japanese, Chinese Herbs Shows Promise for Blocking Ebola Virus

New anti-viral?

SCI-NEWS.COM
02/27/2015

In a new study published in the journal Science, tetrandrine – an alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra (commonly known as stephania root or ‘han fang ji’) and other Japanese and Chinese herbs – inhibited infection of human white blood cells in petri dish experiments and also showed therapeutic efficacy in lab mice.


Colorized scanning electron micrograph of filamentous Ebola
virus particles (blue) budding from a chronically infected 
cell (yellow).  Image credit: NIAID / CC BY 2.0.
Ebola is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus.

There are five identified Ebolavirus species, four of which are known to cause disease in humans: Ebola virus, Sudan virus, Ta├» Forest virus, and Bundibugyo virus. 

The fifth, Reston virus, has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans.


Ebola was first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and currently has no approved therapy or vaccine.

The new study, led by Dr Robert Davey of the Texas Biomedical Research Institute, focused on stopping the Ebola virus before it has a chance to enter or interact with cellular factors, as that is a critical first step to combating infection.

The virus begins its entry into a cell by first binding to several types of cell surface proteins. Then the virus is taken into the cell and follows an endosomal route, or membrane-bound route that transports the virus to various cell compartments.

From previous studies, Dr Davey and his colleagues from Germany and the United States knew that calcium signaling in cells, which allow cells to transmit electrical charges to one another, controls many of the processes in the cell and was important for Ebola virus infection.

“We were not able, however, to pinpoint the mechanisms involved in this process,” Dr Davey said.

“With this research, we discovered that two pore channels (TPCs) are the key calcium sensor involved in Ebola virus infection. These TPCs essentially need to be turned on in order for the virus to function properly.”

Two pore channels are unusual calcium channels found in endosomes that control the way endosomes move through cells and the environment of the cells.

The scientists compared TPCs to traffic cops and air conditioners, helping direct the endosomes and any virus it might be carrying through the cell and making the endosomes and its passengers more comfortable along the way.

They were able to show the critical role of two pore channels in Ebola virus infection, which has not previously been shown in any other virus.

In addition to identifying this critical mechanism to infection, the researchers also showed that drugs targeting this interaction show some efficacy as potential treatments against Ebola virus disease.

They determined that existing drugs currently used to treat high blood pressure have an ability to turn this key calcium sensor on and off. They tested several small molecules to see which was most effective at turning the sensors off thus prohibiting Ebola virus from moving any further through the cell.

The scientists found a compound called tetrandrine protected mice from disease without obvious side effects and was the best candidate for further animal testing, because it was the most potent compound tested, gave little evidence of cytotoxicity and required a smaller dose to be effective and tolerated.

“When we tested in mice, the drugs stopped virus replication and saved most of them from disease,” Dr Davey said.

Essentially, tetrandrine shows an ability to stop the virus before it has a chance interact with cellular factors, thus stopping the virus from continuing its infection process.

“We are very excited about the progress made in this study and the momentum it provides as scientists across the world vigorously search for effective vaccines and treatments against Ebola virus,” Dr Davey said.

“We are cautiously optimistic. The next step in the process is to test both safety and effectiveness of the interaction of the drug with Ebola virus in non-human primates.”



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ANDREW KREIG: EXPERTS REJECT FIRE AS CAUSE FOR 9/11 WTC COLLAPSES

The real truth on 9/11 slowly continues to bleed out

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Technical experts are mounting major challenges to official U.S. government accounts of how three World Trade Center skyscrapers collapsed in near-freefall after the 9/11 attacks 15 years ago.

Many researchers are focusing especially on the little-known collapse of

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The Geopolitics Of The United States, Part 1: The Inevitable Empire

The Empire and the inevitable fall of the Obama criminal regime

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STRATFOR Editor’s Note: This installment on the United States, presented in two parts, is the 16th in a series of STRATFOR monographs on the geopolitics of countries influential in world affairs.

Like nearly all of the peoples of North and South America, most Americans are not originally from the territory that became the United States.

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Geopolitics Of The United States Part 2: American Identity And The Threats of Tomorrow

A look back at 2011 predictions for the future in order to put events of today into perspective

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We have already discussed in the first part of this analysis how the American geography dooms whoever controls the territory to being a global power, but there are a number of other outcomes that shape what that power will be like. The first and most critical is the impact of that geography on the American mindset.

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By Robert S. Finnegan

This e-mail outlines and confirms the acts of espionage against Indonesia and Indonesians by Akiko Makino and the others involved both in Kobe University and in AI Lab at University of Airlangga, Surabaya; Bahasa Indonesia original follows English translation...

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UPDATED 01/07/2015 : New Analysis Challenges Tamiflu Efficacy; Hong Kong Corona Virus Outbreak

UPDATED 01/07/2015 : FOX NEWS CORPORATE PHARMA SHILL MEGAN KELLY AND FOX NEWS QUACK DOCTOR NOW PUSHING TAMIFLU FOR PREGNANT WOMEN AND CHILDREN;

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THE 5TH ESTATE UNEQUIVOCALLY WARNS THE PUBLIC NOT TO TAKE OR GIVE THIS PROVEN DANGEROUS, INEFFECTIVE DRUG TO ANYONE

Obama criminals now resulting to biowarfare in quest to destroy Chinese and ASEAN economy; "novel virus substrain" points directly to a Kawaoka / Fouchier / Ernala-Ginting Kobe lab virus weaponized and genetically altered to specifically target and infect the Asian population: Ribavirin...

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The 5th Estate has just purchased a library on H5N1 "Novel" virus pandemics, there are dozens of PDF and Exel documents we feel will assist you in saving lives following intentional releases of the H5N1 and now MERS viruses; we will begin by printing those that appear to be extremely relevant here: H5N1 Kobe-Kawaoka-Ernala series continues soon with more "Smoking Gun" e-mails from Teridah Ernala to The 5th Estate . . .

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By Robert S. Finnegan

On October 12, 2002 the Indonesian island of Bali experienced a terrorist attack that rocked the world. It was unquestionably well-coordinated and executed, the largest in the country's history.

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